You might think the answer is easy, “Tax the owners of capital!” Of course, capital is highly mobile today, it will only be moreso in the future as better ways to identify and locate off-shore (or off-planet) will surely be discovered. You might say, “Tax the robots when they come in?” Remember your basic tax theory, the inelastic factors are going to be nailed – which is to say, all of us impoverished former-laborers cum consumption zombies. In a world where the robots massively displace human labor, you can easily imagine that smart redistributive policies could capture a Pareto improvement, but again I’ve never seen an explanation that the redistribution wouldn’t only be difficult, but even possible at all in principle.
Now, for the record, I am a “robot optimist” – so I don’t think that smart machines are going to massively displace workers in my lifetime, on the other hand I read and think enough to understand that my optimism is not in any way scientific, so I like to prepare for the possibility.
In today’s research, I perhaps should alter my estimate of the likelihood of robot impoverishment:
NBER Working Paper No. 20941
Will smart machines replace humans like the internal combustion engine replaced horses? If so, can putting people out of work, or at least out of good work, also put the economy out of business? Our model says yes. Under the right conditions, more supply produces, over time, less demand as the smart machines undermine their customer base. Highly tailored skill- and generation-specific redistribution policies can keep smart machines from immiserating humanity. But blunt policies, such as mandating open-source technology, can make matters worse.
To quote C3PO, “We’re doomed.” On the bright side, it’s nice to see economists that one might suggest have different world views collaborating on a paper – I rarely see such thing. So perhaps the end of productive human labor will have some other bright sides to it.