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We investigate the relationship between interstate highways and highway vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) in US cities.  We find that VKT increases proportionately to highways and identify three important sources for this extra VKT:  an increase in driving by current residents; an increase in transportation intensive production activity; and an inflow of new residents.  The provision of public transportation has no impact on VKT.  We also estimate the aggregate city level demand for VKT and find it to be very elastic.  We conclude that an increased provision of roads or public transit is unlikely to relieve congestion.

The paper is here. My emphasis added. The last sentence, I thought, should have been obvious.

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