If the income and wealth of every single American were to double over the next decade in REAL terms, then in a decade, the amount of measured poverty would remain unchanged. You’d also very likely see no change in inequality according to the way most people talk about it, i.e. “the income share of the top x% versus the income share of everyone else.” And we’d therefore “conclude” that economic growth doesn’t end poverty and that economic growth doesn’t alter inequality.
UPDATE: Edited to reflect comment two … my point was supposed to be that the gains to the rich would be larger than the gains to the poor, and out came what I wrote! The point remains of course.